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Full text of "ТАБАСАРАНСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (The Tabassaran Language)"

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BBE;p:miE 



Ta6acapaHCKiiJi 9\3b\K - 5i3biK ofXHoih v\3 KopeHHbix HapoAHOcreii 
AarecraHa - Ta6acapaHL4eB. Ta6acapaHCKki(i n3biK oTHOCMTCfi k 
lesruHCKOM noflrpynne HaxcKo-AarecraHCKnx nsbiKOB, cpeflw 
<OTopbix K HeMy Haii6ojiee 6nki3Ki^ aryxibCKi/iii m neaniHCKi^Ji nabiKii, 
36pa3yK)iHMe SMecre c hum BocxoMHO-JiesruHCKyK) noflrpynny. 

CymecTsyeT HecKonbKO sapnaHTOB arnMonorMM Ha3BaHMJ» "Ta6a- 
:apaH". n. K. Ycjiap, npeAnonaraBUJHM b hgm wpaHCKHw KopeHb 
3iiflen bo BTopoM MacTM "ronoBbi", a nepsyK) c6jiM>Ka/i c "nopMa" nnn 
'Tonop". B nocneAHne roAbi nonynflpHofi flBnflexcfl roHKa 3peHMfl, 
pa3'h9\CH9\)o\i\a9\ TaSacapaH KaK "sepmnHHyK) o6nacTb\ C Apyrow 
CTopoHbi, Ta6acapaHi4bi cHMxajoTCfl noTOMKawin «TaBacnopoB», 
BxoAi^BUJiix B cocTaB KaBKa3CK0M Aji6aHiiii. HccneAOBarenM 
o6paLitanii raiOKe BHUMaHne Ha 6jiii30CTb TonoHUMOB "TaSacapaH" h 
TaSapucTaH". CpeAn ne3rMH SbiToaano raioKe Ha3BaHMe raSaca- 
paHqea "KbaSrtaH", cpeAw KawrarueB - "munaH". B KanecTBe 
MCKOHHoro HassaHMfl npuBOAJ^T 3THOHiiM-caMOHa3BaHiie "rbywrbyM". 

rio nepenuicM 1989 roAa HacHMTbiBanocb cBbiiue 98 Tbic^H 
Ta6acapaHt4eB, M3 Koropbix CBbime 20 TbiCHM npo>KMBano 3a 
npeAe/iaMii AarecraHa. B /i^arecjaHe Ta6acapaHi4bi HacejiHK)T Asa 
paiiOHa Ha tore pecny6nkiKi4 - TaSacapaHCKufi n Xmbckhm. Bojibiuoe 
KOJiMMecTBO Ta6acapaHi4eB nepecennnocb na nnocKOCTb m 
npoKMBaer b npeAenax flep6eHTCKoro. MacrnHHO m KaaKeHTCKoro 
pawoHOB. SnaHMTejibHoe KonwHecTBO TaSacapaHqeB npo)KMBaeT b 
ropoAax A^P^eHT, OmM, MaMeAKana, Kacni4(icK, MaxaMKana, a 
raioKe b noceriKe BejiMA>Kii. 

B HacTO^mee Bpew^ Ta6acapaHMbi rpannMaT na wre c 
nesrwHaMM, na K)re-3anaAe - c arynbiiaMM, na ceBepo-BOCTOKe - c 
KaiiTdruaMii (AapmHuaMn) t^ na BocTOKe - c tk>pkcki4m (a3ep- 
6a(iA>KaHCKUiM) Hacenehi/ieM no6epe>Kb^ KacnMiicKoro Mop5^. CyA^ no 

I^CTOpi^MeCKtlM XpOHI^KaM 11 COXpaHklBUJe(lCH TOnOHMMl/IKe, 3HaHM- 

TejibHa5) HacTb TeppnTopnii, Ha KOTopoM npo>KiiBaeT B nacTOfiu^ee 
Bpewfl TK)pKOJi3biMHoe HaceneHMe Ta6acapaHGKoro m flepOeHTCKoro 
paiioHOB AarecTana, ncTopMsecKn 6biJia 3aceneHa TaGacapaHuaMU, 



12 



Beedenue 



ap^jan pacceneHM^ KOTopwx 6bm cunbHO cy>KeH b peaynbTare 
nepcMACKiriA, apaGuKi^x 1^ TiopKCKHX saBoesaHMM M nepecejieHM^ Ha 
3TM SeMJlM MH0fi3bNH0r0 HacejieHMfl. 

TeppMTopMfi pacnpocTpaHeHii5i Ta6acapaHCKoro nsbiKa 




AAPmHCKM^ 

^3blK XycTMJib 

XypMK Q o 

fVVAMt XaHar 

XywHMicJyPflS^ 
Ui»*neo yn3Mr 

CyB§JEC(3KMM 



Aio6eK 



Tamuib 
oxanMiib A3EPBAfiA)KAHCKMM 
"T^® 5i3b!K 



[yMHH oPyWnb 
CVXTMX oLp«HaK 

° O ApMfT -V/ 

rymar oXyraor jj- 
mK *'. o o "^^ 



ATPHK o V^y™ ^ '^<* ° ThSkt'^^ 

"-^^-g^epTMilb rymar oXyinor jrt 
XypcaiMfibO ypra Ky»pMK^'.o o ^ •^'' 

. oL- K, ^5'''■•■°>^*•'■■••• 



XopeAJK 



XopeAJK ''-'«*^ 

AryjibCKMiii n c o n 

H3blK J I b O I 



iJieKT 



no MCTopi/iHecKMM csefleHny^M [Ycnap 1979: 49-50]. apaScKnw 
nonKOBOfleit A6y-Mycr!MM, cyMesiuMM noKopuxb Ta6acapaH m 
oSpaTMTb ero >KMTeneii b MycynbMaHCTBO, "HasHaHH/i npaBureneM 
TaSacapaHM oflHoro ii3 cnoABMKHWKOB cbomx, apasnTyiHMHa 
MKDxawMefl MaacyMa... K Maacywy 5bino npucraBJieHO flsa Kaflu^, 
aa Tew, MTo6bi ohm xonKOBann napoAy HacToy^mMM CMbicn McnaMa... 
CyAb5a, nocTuriuaji OAHoro m3 npucTasnenHbix KaAneB, KaK 
Ka>KeTC5i, ocTanacb HeM3BecTH0K), ho MjoxaMMCA MaacyM m 
MioxawMeA KaAn CAenanncb He3aBMGMMbiMM APyr ot APyra 
BJiaAenbLiaMM m noAennnn Me>KAy co6ok) Ta6acapaHb". TaKWM 
o5pa30M, Ha TeppnTopiin TaSacapana B03HMKnM ABa cjDeoAa/ibHbix 
BJiaAeHM^? - KbadupuH ybriKe ^KaAna CTpana* (CeaepHbiM 
Taeacaoan) m Mucu6duH ybme 'Maacywa crpana' (KD>KHbm 



Beedenue 13. 



Ta6acapaH). Hap^iAY c Ta6acapaHCKMMM aynaMin e Kba^vipuiH ybiiKe 
BXOA^nM ceneHUft c TK>pKCKiiM m TarcKUM (MycynbMaHCKoro 
BeponcnoBeAaHMH) ii ropcKO-espeMCKiiM cocTasoM HaceneHun, a b 
MwcuSflMH ybJiKe - c nearwHCKMM m eBpewcKHM. npasMTenw 3tmx 
TeppMTopuiM HepeAKO Benn Me>KAy co6om BotiHbi, hto npi/iBOAMJio k 
orpaHMHeHM5iM B o6meHMM Me>KAy HMMM. K aawKHyroMy o6pa3y 
>KM3HM HaceneHwyi m, cooTBercTBeHHO, k pocry flSbiKOBbix 
pacxo>KAeHMM Me>KAy ceBepoM m raroM TaSacapaHa. TaKOM pasAe/i 
TaSacapaHa MMen wecTO b npoAon>KeHMe menoro Tbic^iHeneTHfl. 

ripi^ npucoeAiiHeHMM TaSacapaHa k Poccmm ceaepHafi nacTb 
OTOiuna K KaMTaro-Ta6acapaHCK0My OKpyry (HbiHe Ta6acapaHCKMii 
paiiOH), a K)>KHa5i - k KjopwHCKOMy OKpyry (HbiHe Xmbckmm pawoH). 

Becbivia lijoSonbiTHbi CTaTHCTMMecKMe AaHHbie o 
HapoAOHaceneHMM TaSacapana k KOHuiy npomnoro CTonerM^, 
npuBOAMMbie b npeAncnoBnn k MOHorpact)MM n. K. Ycnapa. Flo 3Tmm 
AaHHbiM, B3^TbiM kiM M3 cxaTbn reHepa/ia KoMapoBa, noMeu^eHHoii b 
Vlll BbinycKe SanwcoK KasKascKoro ota- MMeparopcKoro 
PoccMMCKoro reorpac|)MHecKoro 06iJ4ecTBa, b CeBepHOM 
Ta6acapaHe npoKusano ayuj o5oero nona 12744. m3 Koropbix 
ra6acapaHL4eB 7365, TK)pKO-a3ep6aMA>KaHLieB 2669, raroB 
(MycyjibMaH) 2378 m espeeB 332, a b K)>khom - 12507 se/iOBeK, M3 
KOTopbix TaSacapaHLieB 9679, KKDpuHueB (ne3rMH) 2435, espeea 393. 

Bbmay 3THMHecK0M necTpoTbi Ta6acapaHa a^a SHannTenbHOM 
^acTM Bspocnoro TaSacapancKoro HaceneHUH ncTopi/iHecKM 6bmo 
<apaKTepHO AByflSbinne - SHaHne HapyiAY c poAHbiM coceAHHx 
a3ep6aiiA>KaHCKoro (b CeBepHOM Ta5acapaHe) m nesrwHCKoro (b 
fO>KHOM Ta6acapaHe) fisbiKOB. 

SHaHne BbicTynaBiJJMX b flarecraHe b pa3Hbie 3noxM b KanecTBe 
^3biK0B ivie>KHaL4i40HanbHoro o6u4eHiifi nepcuACKoro, apa6cKoro i/i 
rypei4Koro ^3biK0B 6bmo orpaHimeHHbiM ui ^Meno Mecro numb cpeAii 
EiyxoBeHCTBa m MHTennnreHunM. 

B HacToyiinee Bpewji ary 4)yHKi4iiK) laKOBoro Bce aKtuBHee 
BbinonHHeT pyccKMW yisbiK, Ha KoropoM ocymecrBn^eTcyi o6yHeHi/ie 
3a npeABJiawn HaManbHow tuKoribi m KOTopbiM MonoAe>Kb anaAeeT 
^opasAO CBo6oAHee, new nK)5biM v\z nepeMwcneHHbix Bwiue asbiKOB. 

Ta6acapaHCKMM hshk b npoLunowi, KaK m ocranbHwe AareciaHCKne 

«3blKM, 5bin 6ecnMCbMeHHblM, eCJlM He CMMTaXb OTAenbHbix nonbiTOK 

ipMcnoco6neHMfl k neiwy apa6cKoti rpac|3MKM - aA>KaMa (cm. puc. 1). 
B cwny sroro CKonbKO-HwSyAb 3HaHMTejibHbie ni/icbMeHHbie 
nawyiTHMKM Ha Ta6acapaHCK0M 9\3h\Ke OTcyrcTByiOT. FlncbMeHHOCTb 
Ha Ta6acapaHCK0M asbiKe na ocHOBe najMHCKOM rpacjDHKH 6bma 



14 Beedenue 



BBe^ena b 1932 roAy. B 1938 roAy OHa, kqk m nwcbMeHHOCTb Ha 
ocranhHMv ^arccraHCKkix f!3biKax, 6bma nepeBeAeHa Ha pyccKyK) 
rpa4)yiKy, Aono/iHeHHyto 3HaK0M I, KOTopbi(i Hapf^Ay c !> ki b 
Mcnoiib30Banc» A^5^ oSpaaoBanun KOM6MHiipoBaHHbix 6yKB pf\^ 
cnei4iict)MMecKiix 3ByK0B raSacapaHCKoro 5)3biKa. 

B Ta6acapaHCK0M »3biKe pa3nMMaK)T ABa pjAdineKva, Ka>KAbiii i^3 
KOTopbix o6'beAMHHeT rpynny roBopoB. 3tm ABa py^^nevjB 
npoTviBonocTaBJieHbi Apyr APyry MenbiM p^AOM ct^OHernHecKMx m 
rpaMMaTMMecKi/ix oco6eHHOCTeM. 






p> %i 









*5j f* '«•<>*. *-»*^-'*'*^ i 



->o.4i^j^r^v;4,^^:^^ 



f . ^ V ^ r *- 



Pmc. 1. OparMeHTTa6acapaHCKoii pyKoniicM b apa6cKOH rpa4)iiKe. 



Beedenue 15 



CeeepHbiM m K»KHbiM flMaxieiabi npoTHBonocTaBneHbi flpyr APyry 

UeJlblM pflflOM 4)0HeTMMeCKMX M rpaMMaTMMeCKMX OCOSeHHOCTeM. B 
OCHOBHOM 3TM 0C06eHH0CTM UBOfl/TTCP K CHeflyiOlMMM: B K)>KHOM 

A^aneKje MMeK}TC^ 3aAHe593bNHbie y\ ct^apuHraribHbie 
na6iiajiM30BaHHbie comacHbie, KOTOpbix Her b ceeepHOM. B CBOto 
OHepeAb, B ceBepHOM ifiMeK)TCfl reMuiHupoBaHHbie cnkipaHTbi, 
OTcyTCTByjoLLine B K)>KHOM, PA© HeT TaioKe xapaKiepHoro pf\^ 
ceBepHoro sbohkopo (t)apMHra/ibHoro Kh. ComacHbiM w/, d)K lOKHoro 
Awajieiaa b cesepHOM peryn^pHO cooTBexcTByiOT ml v\ d (nHorAa p). 
I4ejibiii p^A rpaMMaTHMecKnx c|DopM o6pa3yeTC5i b k)>khom i^ 
ceBepHOM A^aJi^KTdx no-pa3HOMy (3anpeTiiTenbHbie cjDopMbt 
marona: nocpeACTBOM cooTBeiCTBeHHO npecjDUKca wnw MH4)MKca m-; 
OTpMMarejibHbie c|)opMbi: b k)>khom AnajieKre nocpeAcreoM cnoroBOM 
peAynnnKaMMM m t.a-)- Ha6nK)AaK)TCfl m HeKOTopwe neKCHMecKne 
pasjiMMMJi. no xapaKTepMCTMKe B. M. Sarnposa, "AwaneKTHafl 
jieKCHKa B Ta6acapaHCK0M 5^3biKe npeAcraBxieHa He6ojibLUbiM 
KonnnecTBOM cnoB. Bh\pfir\9\\OT09{ AMaJieKTii3Mbi Asyx TunoB: 1. 
C/ioBa OTAenbHbix A^aneKTOB niiki roBopoB, hmSo He biMeiOLi)iie 
cooTBeTCTBMfl B HMTepaTypHOM yi3biKe, nM6o orniiHaiOLMMecyi ox 
cooTBeTCTByK)U4MX o6u4eHapoAHbix JieKceM no 3ByHaHMK), ceMaHTMKe 
MJiM CTpyKType... 2. AnaneKTHbie cnosa, ncnonb3yeMbie b wbiKe 
xyAo>KecTBeHHOM nMTeparypbi pjr\^ tomhom nepeAaMn MecTHbix 
ocoSeHHOCTeii M3o6pa>KaeMOM peanbHOcrn..." [SarnpoB 1981: 100- 
101]. 

rio MHeHMJO p^Aa cneMnanMcroB, cneAyex oco6o BbiAejinxb, 
B03M0>KH0, B oco6biii nepexoAHbiM AwaneKT, srercKnii roBop (oamh 
113 roBopoB K»KHoro AManeKra), KOTopbiw o6Hapy>KMBaeT m 
HeKOTopbie oco6eHHOCTM cesepHoro (oTcyrcTBue KaK 3aAHeji3biHHwx 
na6iianM30BaHHbix comacHbix, laK v\ reMUHtipoBaHHbix cnMpaHToa). 

Hanaiio c|)opMi/ipoBaHii5i ni/icbMeHHofi riMTeparypbt Ha 
Ta6acapaHCK0M oTHOCHTCfl k 20-m roAaM npomnoro cToneTw^i. 
KaHecTBeHHbiii CKanoK 3Aecb npoM30Ujexi b 1932 roAy b cb$=13m c 
co3AaHMeM Ta6acapaHCK0M nucbMeHHocTn na jiarnHCKOM 

rpa4>i4HecKO^ ocnoBe. 

3to npoLiecc conpoBO>KAancyi onpeAenennbiMn jpyAHOCTflMH, hto 

oGla^CH^IJlOCb CneAyK)LAkIMM npMMMHaMM. 

Bo-nepBbix, npw onpeAenenuM nepBOHananbHoro Kpyra 
/iMTeparypHbix fl3biK0B flarecTana, na KOTopwx cjieAOBano co3AaTb 
nMCbMeHHOCTb, Ta6acapaHCKMii 5i3biK 6bm OTHecen k Hucny R3biK0B 
ManoHMcneHHbix HapoAOB, cosAaHne nucbMeHHOcTn pp9\ KOTopbix 
CHMTanocb 6ecnepcneKTMBHbiM. 



MMxaMn AJ1EKCEEB 
Ca6piiHa UJUXAJIklEBA 



yflK811.35 
5BK81.2(ra6) 



TABACAPAHCKMM fiSblK 



PeMeHseHTbi: 

AOKTop c|3MnojiorMHecKMX HayK 3. M. lUeuxoe 

flOKTop ct)MnonorMHecKMX HayK 3. M. Mannaeea 



OmeemcmeeHHbtu pedaKmop 
K, K, KypdsHoe 



AneKcefeB M. E., UJMxanMeBa C. X. TABACAPAHCKMi;^ ^3b!K. Otb. 
K. K. Kyp6aHOB. M.: Academia. 2003. 140 c, unn. 



pefl. 



MocKBa 
2003 



KHMra flB/iflercH KOMnncKCHbiM onucaHneM Ta6acapaHCKoro flabma, oxBaxbiBaio- 
LMMM KaK co6cTBeHHO yi3biK0Byio xapaKTepMCTMKy, BKniOHaioaiyK) onepK ct)OHeTMKM, 
Mop4)onorMM, cnoBoo6pa30BaHMn, cnHTaKCMca n neKCHKM, tbk v\ o63op commohmh- 
rBMCTimecKOM CHxayaMHii. B KHure noKaaaHbi BsanMooTHoiueHMfl raSacapaHCKoro 
flSbiKa c 6nM3KopoACTBeHHbiMM n3biKaMti nesrwHCKOM rpynnbi, a laJOKe flpyrMMii 
AarecraHCKMMn; npuBOA^rcfl csefleHUfl o reppMiopuM pacnpocrpaHeHun n3biKa m 
HMcneHHocTM roBopflU4Mx; xapaKTepM3yK)TCfl o6mecTBeHHbie cJ)yHKUMM wabrKa; ero 

KOHTaiCTbl C pyCCKMM, TIOpKCKMMM M APyrHMM q3blKaMM; AaeiCfl MCTOpiifl 
nWCbMeHHOCTM M MCTOpWH MSyMeHMfl TaSacapaHCKOfO flSblKa. 

KHura npeAHasHaMeHa KaK ^n9\ cneLiMajiMCT0B-KaBKa30BeA0B, laK v\ Ann Bcex 
MHTepecyK)Li4Mxcfl npo6neMaMM nabiKOB HapoAOB Poccmm. 

ISBN 5-87444-196-4